Vertebrates play key ecological roles in virtually all Earth’s surface environments today, and have a rich fossil record spanning more than 500 million years of deep time. Vertebrate Palaeobiology research in Oxford spans field exploration and fossil discovery to the statistical exploration of major patterns in vertebrate evolution, including the analysis of species diversification and phenotypic change through time and phylogeny, and in response to changing environments. Our research aims to integrate data and approaches from the study of both living and fossil vertebrates, and includes comparative anatomical research on the evolutionary assembly of body plans in major groups such as the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), actinopterygians (ray-finned fish), birds, and marine tetrapods. We have applied 3D computed tomographic (CT) X-ray imaging approaches to visualise the anatomy of key fossil taxa, as well as sense organs and anatomical systems such as the labyrinthe (organ of balance) across living and fossil taxa. By approaches, we aim to shed new light on the major events and processes in the vertebrate evolution.