Please consider acknowledging SubMachine if it helps you to obtain results and figures for publication or presentation, by citing:

Hosseini, K. , Matthews, K. J., Sigloch, K. , Shephard, G. E., Domeier, M. and Tsekhmistrenko, M. (2018), SubMachine: Web-Based tools for exploring seismic tomography and other models of Earth's deep interior. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19. doi:10.1029/2018GC007431
If using the Vote Maps tools then please also consider citing our companion article:

Shephard, G.E., K.J. Matthews, K. Hosseini, and M. Domeier, On the consistency of seismically imaged lower mantle slabs. Nature Scientific Reports.
Finally, please remember to cite, as appropriate, the original publications of any tomography models, plate reconstructions, hotspot datasets, shear wave splitting, ULVZ, normal modes, topography, geoid, marine gravity, vertical gravity gradient and crustal structure that you use. References are tabulated at the bottom of each page and a summary of them is listed below.

Tomography Models

P-wave Model Data Type Reference Model Reference Source and Additional Notes
DETOX-P1 Body waves (only P) IASP91 Hosseini et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz394 From lead author of this study (Kasra Hosseini)
DETOX-P2 Body waves (P and Pdiff) IASP91 Hosseini et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz394 From lead author of this study (Kasra Hosseini)
DETOX-P3 Body waves (P, PP and Pdiff) IASP91 Hosseini et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz394 From lead author of this study (Kasra Hosseini)
Hosseini2016 Body waves IASP91 Hosseini (2016) PhD thesis From lead author of this study (Kasra Hosseini)
GAP-P4 Body waves GAP Obayashi et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/2013GL057401

Fukao and Obayashi (2013) doi:10.1002/2013JB010466
JAMSTEC Data Catalog website
http://d-earth.jamstec.go.jp/GAP_P4/
GyPSuM-P Body waves PREM (modified) Simmons et al. (2010) doi:10.1029/2010JB007631 IRIS EMC website

- GyPSuM-P and GyPSuM-S were made using a joint inversion (constrained)
HMSL-P06 Surface waves, body waves AK135 for ray tracing, traveltime measurements for each phase have the mean removed Houser et al. (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03763.x Personal website (Christine Houser)
https://members.elsi.jp/~chouser/models.html
LLNL_G3Dv3 Body waves Custom averaged model Simmons et al. (2012) doi:10.1029/2012JB009525 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) website
https://www-gs.llnl.gov/nuclear-threat-reduction/nuclear-explosion-monitoring/global-3d-seismic-tomography
MITP08 Body waves AK135 Li et al. (2008) doi:10.1029/2007GC001806 Published supplementary material
MITP_USA_2011MAR Body waves AK135 Burdick et al. (2012) doi:10.1785/gssrl.83.1.23 Published supplementary material
MITP_USA_2016MAY Body waves AK135 Burdick et al. (2017) doi:10.1785/0220160186 Published supplementary material
PRI-P05 Body waves IASP91 Montelli et al. (2006) doi:10.1029/2006GC001248 GLOBALSEIS website
https://www.geoazur.fr/GLOBALSEIS/Models.html
Sigloch_NAm_2011
(regional North America model)
Body waves IASP91 Sigloch (2011) doi:10.1029/2010GC003421 Published supplementary material
SP12RTS-P Surface waves, body waves, normal modes PREM Koelemeijer et al. (2016) doi:10.1093/gji/ggv481 Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
https://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~univ4152/downloads_sp12rts.html

- SP12RTS-P and SP12RTS-S were made using a joint inversion (unconstrained)
SPani-P Surface waves, body waves PREM Tesoniero et al. (2015) doi:10.1002/2015JB012026 Personal GitHub page (Andrea Tesoniero)
https://github.com/atesoniero/SPani

- SPani-P and SPani-Si were made using a joint inversion (constrained)
UU-P07 Body waves AK135 Amaru (2007) PhD thesis Personal communication (Wim Spakman)

S-wave Model Data Type Reference Model Reference Source and Additional Notes
3D2016_09Sv
(upper mantle model)
Surface waves Custom averaged model Debayle et al. (2016) doi:10.1002/2015GL067329 Personal website (Eric Debayle)
http://perso.ens-lyon.fr/eric.debayle/
GyPSuM-S Body waves TNA/SNA Simmons et al. (2010) doi:10.1029/2010JB007631 IRIS EMC website

- GyPSuM-P and GyPSuM-S were made using a joint inversion (constrained)
HMSL-S06 Surface waves, body waves AK135 for ray tracing, traveltime measurements for each phase have the mean removed Houser et al. (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03763.x Personal website (Christine Houser)
https://members.elsi.jp/~chouser/models.html
PRI-S05 Body waves IASP91 Montelli et al. (2006) doi:10.1029/2006GC001248 GLOBALSEIS website
https://www.geoazur.fr/GLOBALSEIS/Models.html
S10MEAN Averaging 10 tomography models None Doubrovine et al. (2016) doi:10.1002/2015GC006044 Personal communication (Pavel Doubrovine)

- No reference model — only relative variations are meaningful
S20RTS Surface waves, body waves, normal modes PREM Ritsema et al. (1999) doi:10.1126/science.286.5446.1925 Personal communication (Paula Koelemeijer)
S362ANI+M Surface waves, body waves, normal modes STW105 Moulik and Ekström (2014) doi:10.1093/gji/ggu356 Personal website (Raj Moulik)
http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~moulik/Research/3D/S362ANI+M/model.php
S40RTS Surface waves, body waves, normal modes PREM Ritsema et al. (2011) doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04884.x Personal communication (Paula Koelemeijer)
SAVANI Surface waves, body waves PREM Auer et al. (2014) doi:10.1002/2013JB010773 Personal website (Thorsten Becker)
http://www-udc.ig.utexas.edu/external/becker/tdata.html
SAW642ANb Waveform PREM Panning et al. (2010) doi:10.1029/2010JB007520 Personal website (Mark Panning)
http://users.clas.ufl.edu/mpanning/SAW642ANb.html
SEISGLOB1 Surface waves, normal modes PREM Durand et al. (2016) doi:10.1002/2016GL069650 IRIS EMC website
SEISGLOB2 Surface waves, body waves, normal modes PREM Durand et al. (2017) doi:10.1093/gji/ggx405 IRIS EMC website
SEMUCB-WM1 Waveform Custom averaged model French and Romanowicz (2014) doi:10.1093/gji/ggu334 Seismo Berkeley website (version: r20151019)
http://seismo.berkeley.edu/~barbara/SEMum2/
SEMum Waveform PREM? Lekic and Romanowicz (2011) doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.04969.x IRIS EMC website
SGLOBE-rani Surface waves, body waves PREM Chang et al. (2015) doi:10.1002/2014JB011824 IRIS EMC website
SL2013sv
(upper mantle model)
Surface waves AK135 Schaeffer and Lebedev (2013) doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095 Personal website (Andrew Schaeffer)
https://homepages.dias.ie/aschaeff/Andrew_Schaeffer/SL2013sv.html
SP12RTS-S Surface waves, body waves, normal modes PREM Koelemeijer et al. (2016) doi:10.1093/gji/ggv481 Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
https://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~univ4152/downloads_sp12rts.html

- SP12RTS-P and SP12RTS-S were made using a joint inversion (unconstrained)
SPani-S Surface waves, body waves PREM Tesoniero et al. (2015) doi:10.1002/2015JB012026 Personal GitHub page (Andrea Tesoniero)
https://github.com/atesoniero/SPani

- SPani-P and SPani-S were made using a joint inversion (constrained)
TX2011 Body waves TX2011_ref Grand (2002) doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.1077 IRIS EMC website
TX2015 Body waves TX2011_ref Lu and Grand (2016) doi:10.1093/gji/ggw072 Personal communication (Stephen Grand/Wim Spakman)
Zaroli2016 Body waves IASP91 Zaroli (2016) doi:10.1093/gji/ggw315 Personal communication (Christophe Zaroli)
Average Model Data Type Reference Model Reference Source and Additional Notes
PMEAN Averaging tomography models PREM Becker and Boschi (2002) doi:10.1029/2001GC000168 Personal website (Thorsten Becker)
http://www-udc.ig.utexas.edu/external/becker/tdata.html
SMEAN Averaging tomography models PREM Becker and Boschi (2002) doi:10.1029/2001GC000168 Personal website (Thorsten Becker)
http://www-udc.ig.utexas.edu/external/becker/tdata.html
S10MEAN Averaging 10 tomography models None Doubrovine et al. (2016) doi:10.1002/2015GC006044 Personal communication (Pavel Doubrovine)

- No reference model — only relative variations are meaningful

Plate Reconstruction Models

Model Timeframe (Ma) Spatial Extent Reference Additional Notes
Matthews et al. (2016) 410-0 Global Matthews et al. (2016)
doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.10.002
Based on the models of Domeier and Torsvik (2014) (410-250 Ma) and Müller et al. (2016) (230-0 Ma).
Zahirovic et al. (2016) 230-0 Global (Tethys focus) Zahirovic et al. (2016)
doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.09.005
Regional model for the Tethys and Southeast Asia embedded in an updated version of the global model of Müller et al. (2016).
Seton et al. (2012) 200-0 Global Seton et al. (2012)
doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.03.002

Hotspot Datasets

Reference Additional Notes
Whittaker et al. (2013) AGU Fall Meeting abstract This dataset is from the GPlates 2.0 Sample Data and is described as follows: Locations were compiled from Montelli et al. (2004), Courtillot et al. (2003), Steinberger et al. (2000), and Anderson and Schramm (2005). Plumes closer than 500 km were combined into an averaged location. (small circles)
Whittaker et al. (2015) doi:10.1038/ngeo2437 This dataset consists of deeply sourced mantle plumes. (large circles)

Shear Wave Splitting

Dataset Reference
SplittingDataBase Wüstefeld et al. (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2009.05.006

ULVZ

Dataset Reference Comments
ULVZ-Database Yu and Garnero (2018) doi:10.1002/2017GC007281
ULVZ-Database, GitHub page of Shule Yu
"ULVZ detected": All.yes.grd.txt database in FresnelZoneAdded page.
"weak ULVZ detected": All.may.grd.txt database in FresnelZoneAdded page.
"no ULVZ detected": All.no.grd.txt database in FresnelZoneAdded page.

Crustal structure

Model Comment Reference Source
CRUST1.0 Laske et al. (2013) CRUST 1.0 website

Geodesy

Observation Type Model Comment Reference Source
Geoid EGM08 Pavlis et al. (2012) doi:10.1029/2011JB008916 Earth Gravitational Model 2008 website
Free-air marine gravity anomaly N/A Version 24.1 Sandwell et al. (2014) doi:10.1126/science.1258213 Satellite Geodesy research group website (University of California, San Diego)
Vertical gravity gradient N/A Version 24.1 Sandwell et al. (2014) doi:10.1126/science.1258213 Satellite Geodesy research group website (University of California, San Diego)
Topography SRTM15_PLUS Version 1 Olson et al. (2014) Satellite Geodesy research group website (University of California, San Diego)

Normal Modes

Name Maximum Observed Degree Observed Period (s) Reference Source
00S21 12 336 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S22 12 325 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S23 12 315 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S24 12 306 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S25 10 298 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S26 10 290 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
00S27 12 282 Koelemeijer (2014) PhD Thesis Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
00S28 12 275 Koelemeijer (2014) PhD Thesis Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
00S29 12 268 Koelemeijer (2014) PhD Thesis Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
00S30 12 262 Koelemeijer (2014) PhD Thesis Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
01S11 6 426 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
01S12 4 392 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
01S13 4 362 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
01S14 6 336 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
02S15 10 309 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
02S16 6 291 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
02S17 2 274 Koelemeijer (2014) PhD Thesis Personal website (Paula Koelemeijer)
02S25 6 185 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material
03S26 4 178 Koelemeijer et al. (2013) doi:10.1002/grl.50514 Published supplementary material



Web development: Kasra Hosseini (kasra.hosseinizad@earth.ox.ac.uk)
Web design: Kasra Hosseini, Kara Matthews, Maria Tsekhmistrenko