Asian Monsoon Variability
The Asian monsoon is caused by seasonal contrasts in the heating of the oceans relative to the land surface, modulated by changes occurring on land (such as the extent of snow cover or vegetation structure) and in the oceans (e.g. the state of the tropical Pacific with respect to El Niño-Southern Oscillation) resulting in seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and rainfall amounts (wet summers and dry winters).
Southeast Asian Monsoon
The large-scale features in atmospheric circulation are well simulated in current climate models, but there are significant errors in the timing of peak rainfall over Indochina as well as in the ability to simulate observed interannual rainfall variability in Southeast Asia. Similarly, the effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on rainfall variability in this area is not well understood.
Dr. Vasile Ersek (Northumbria)