Matt Friedman

Matt Friedman

Visiting Fellow

Understanding the evolutionary assembly of modern vertebrate biodiversity is the common goal of my research. Current projects span vertebrate history, from the divergence of jawed vertebrates deep within the Paleozoic to the diversification of mammals in the Cenozoic.

These diverse topics demand a range of analytical approaches.  Along with colleagues and students, I apply phylogenetic reconstruction, morphometry, computed tomography, simulation, statistical modelling, comparative anatomy, and mechanical and chemical preparation of fossils in order to deliver unique perspectives on patterns of vertebrate evolution over geological timescales.

*graduate student author

Bellwood, DR, Goatley, CHR, Bellwood, O, *Delbarre, DJ and Friedman, M. 2015. The rise of jaw protrusion in spiny-rayed fishes closes the gap on elusive prey. Current Biology 25: 2696-2700.

Brazeau, MD and Friedman, M. 2015. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates. Nature 520: 490-497.

Friedman, M. 2015. The early evolution of ray-finned fishes. Palaeontology 58: 213-228.

*Giles, S, Friedman, M and Brazeau, MD. 2015. Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in a Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature 520: 82-85.

2015

[63.] Bellwood, DR, Goatley, CHR, Bellwood, O, Delbarre, DJ and Friedman, M. 2015. The rise of jaw protrusion in spiny-rayed fishes closes the gap on elusive prey. Current Biology 25: 2696-2700.

[62.] *Delbarre, D, Davesne, D and Friedman, M. 2015. Anatomy and relationships of Aipichthys pretiosus and †’Aipichthys’ nuchalis (Acanthomorpha: Lampridomorpha), with a review of early Late Cretaceous fossil relatives of oarfishes and their allies. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.

[61.] Dornburg, A, Friedman, M, and Near, TJ. 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 89: 205-218.

[60.] *Giles, S, Coates, MI, Garwood, R, Brazeau, MD, Atwood, R, Johanson, Z and Friedman, M. 2015. Endoskeletal structure in Cheirolepis, an early ray-finned fish. Palaeontology 58: 849-870. Open Access

[59.] *Soul, LC and Friedman, M. 2015. Taxonomy and phylogeny can yield similar results in comparative palaeontological analyses. Systematic Biology 64: 608-620.

[58.] Close, RA, Friedman, M, Lloyd, GT, Benson, RBJ. In press. Evidence for mid-Jurassic adaptive radiation in mammals. Current Biology 25: 2137-2142.

[57.] Brazeau, MD and Friedman, M. 2015. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates. Nature 520: 490-497.

[56.] Benton, MJ, Donoghue, PCJ, Asher, RJ, Friedman, M, Near, TJ and Vinther J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.1FC. Open Access

[55.] Friedman, M. 2015. The early evolution of ray-finned fishes. Palaeontology 58: 213-228. Open Access

[54.] *Giles, S, Friedman, M and Brazeau, MD. 2015. Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in a Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature.

2014

[53.] Davesne, D, Friedman, M, Varriel, V, Lecointre, G, Janvier, P, Gallut, C and Otero, O. 2014. Early fossils illuminate character evolution and interrelationships of Lampridiformes (Teleostei, Acanthomorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 475-498.

[52.] Friedman, M. 2014. Review: Mesozoic Fishes 5–Global Diversity and Evolution. Copeia 2014: 411-415.

[51.] Near, TJ, Dornburg, A and Friedman, M. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 80: 297-307.

[50.] **Jones, F, Dunlop, JA, Friedman, M and Garwood, RJ. 2014. Trigonotarbus johnsoni Pocock, 1911 revealed by X-ray computed tomography, with a cladistic analysis of the extinct trigonotarbid arachnids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 49-70.

[49.] Dornburg, A, Townsend, JP, Friedman, M and Near TJ. 2014. Phylogenetic informativeness reconciles ray-finned fish molecular divergence times. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 169. Open Access

[48.] **Jude, E, Johanson, Z, Kearsley and Friedman, M. 2014. Early evolution of the lungfish pectoral-fin endoskeleton: evidence from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Pentlandia macroptera. Frontiers in Earth Science 2: 18. Open Access

[47.] *Giles, S and Friedman, M. 2014. Virtual reconstruction of endocast anatomy in early ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii). Journal of Paleontology 88: 636-651. Open Access

[46.] **Parfitt, M, Johanson, Z, Giles, S, and Friedman, M. 2014. A large, anatomically primitive tristichopterid lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii: Tetrapodomorpha) from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Alves Beds, Upper Old Red Sandstone, Moray, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 50: 79-85.

[45.] Friedman, M, Johanson, Z, Harrington, RC, Near, TJ and Graham, MR. 2014. On fossils, phylogenies, and sequences of evolutionary change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20140115. (response to Britz et al. 2014)

[44.] Brazeau, MD and Friedman, M. 2014. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 779-821.

[43.] Price, SA, Schmitz, L, Oufiero, CE, Eytan, RI, Dornburg, A, Smith, WL, Friedman, M, Near, TJ and Wainwright, PC. 2014. Two waves of colonization straddling the K-Pg boundary formed the modern reef fish fauna. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20140321. Open Access

[42.] Near, TJ, Dornburg, A, Tokita, M, Suzuki, D, Brandley, MC and Friedman, M. 2014. Boom and bust: ancient and recent diversification in bichirs (Polypteridae: Actinopterygii), a relictual lineage of ray-finned fishes. Evolution 68: 1014-1026.

2013

[41.] Friedman, M and Brazeau, MD. 2013. A jaw-dropping fossil fish. Nature 502: 175-177.

[40.] Friedman, M, Keck, BP, Dornburg, A, Eytan, RI, Martin, CH, Hulsey, CD, Wainwright, PC and Near, TJ. 2013. Molecular and fossil evidence place the origin of cichlid fishes long after Gondwanan rifting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20131733. Open Access

[39.] Miya, M, Friedman, M, Satoh, TP, Takeshima, H, Sodo, T, Iwasaki, W, Yamanoue, Y, Nakatani, M, Mabuchi, K, Inoue, JG, Poulsen, JY, Fukunaga, T, Sato, Y and Nishida, M. 2013. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels): members of a Paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families. PLoS ONE 8: e73535. Open Access

[38.] Friedman, M, Johanson, Z, Harrington, RC, Near, TJ and Graham, MR. 2013. An early fossil remora (Echeneoidea) reveals the evolutionary assembly of the adhesion disc. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 1766.

[37.] Near, T, Dornburg, A, Eytan, RI, Keck, BP, Smith WL, Kuhn KL, Moore JA, Price, SA, Burbrink, FT, Friedman, M and Wainwright, PC. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-finned fishes. PNAS 110: 12738-12743. Open Access

[36.] Anderson, PSL, Friedman, M and Ruta, M. 2013. Late to the table: diversification of tetrapod mandibular mechanics lagged behind the evolution of terrestriality. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53: 197-208.

[35.] Lloyd, GT and Friedman, M. 2013. A survey of palaeontological sampling biases in fishes based on the Phanerozoic record of Great Britain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 372:5-17.

[34.] Friedman, M, Shimada, K, Everhart, MJ, Irwin, KJ, Grandstaff, B and Stewart, JD. 2013. Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the Late Cretaceous suspension-feeding bony fish Bonnerichthys gladius (Teleostei: Pachycormiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33:35-47.
2012

[33.] Anderson, PSL and Friedman, M. 2012. Using cladistic disparity to predict functional variety: experiments using gnathostomes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32:1254-1270.

[32.] Friedman, M and Johanson, Z. 2012. †Opisthomyzon glaronensis (Wettstein, 1886) (Acanthomorpha: Echeneidae), a junior synonym of †Uropteryx elongatus Agassiz, 1844. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32: 1202-1206. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.684817

[31.] Near, TJ, Eytan, RI, Dornburg, A, Kuhn, KL, Moore, JA, Davis, MP, Wainwright, PC, Friedman, M and Smith, WL. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. PNAS 109: 13698-13703. doi:10.1073/pnas.1206625109

[30.] Friedman, M and Sallan LC. 2012. 500-million-years of extinction and recovery: a Phanerozoic survey of large-scale diversity patterns in fishes. Palaeontology 55: 707-742. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01165.x

[29.] Friedman, M. 2012c. Osteology of †Heteronectes chaneti (Acanthomorpha: Pleuronectiformes), an Eocene stem flatfish, with a discussion of flatfish sister-group relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32: 735-756. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.661352

[28.] Sallan, LC and Friedman, M. 2012. Heads or tails: staged diversification in vertebrate evolutionary radiations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 2025-2032. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.2454

[27.] Friedman M. 2012b. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium. In Donovan SK, Jagt, JWM, Jagt-Yazykova, EA (eds), Fossils of the type Maastrichtian. Scripta Geologica Special Issue 8: 113-142.

[26.] Friedman M. 2012a. Parallel evolutionary trajectories underlie the origin of giant suspension-feeding whales and bony fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 944-951. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1381
2011

[25.] Anderson PSL, Friedman M, Brazeau MD, Rayfield EJ. 2011. Initial radiation of jaws demonstrated stability despite faunal and environmental change. Nature 476: 206-209. doi:10.1038/nature10207

[24.] Friedman M, Brazeau MD. 2011. Sequences, stratigraphy and scenarios: what can we say about the fossil record of the earliest tetrapods? Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 432-439. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1321
2010

[23.] Friedman M. 2010. Postcranial evolution in early lungfishes (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi): new insights from Soederberghia groenlandica. Pp 299-324 in Elliott DK, Maisey JG, Yu X, Miao D (eds), Fossil Fishes and Related Biota: Morphology, Phylogeny, and Palaeobiogeography. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.

[22.] Coates MI, Friedman M. 2010. Litoptychus bryanti and the characteristics of stem tetrapod neurocrania. Pp 389-416 in Elliott DK, Maisey JG, Yu X, Miao D (eds), Fossil Fishes and Related Biota: Morphology, Phylogeny, and Palaeobiogeography. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.

[21.] Friedman M, Brazeau MD. 2010. A reappraisal of the origin and basal radiation of Osteichthyes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 36-56. doi:10.1080/02724630903409071

[20.] Friedman M. 2010. Explosive morphological diversification of spiny-finned teleosts in the aftermath of the end-Cretaceous extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 1675-1683. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.2177

[19.] Friedman M, Shimada K, Martin LD, Everhart MJ, Liston J, Maltese A, Triebold M. 2010. 100-million-year dynasty of giant planktivorous bony fishes in the Meosozoic seas. Science 327: 990-993. doi:10.1126/science.1184743
2009

[18.] Friedman M. 2009. Journal club: a palaeontologist ponders how biodiversity is spread across the vertebrate tree of life. Nature 462: 255.

[17.] Friedman M. 2009. Emerging on to a tangled bank. Science 324: 341-342. doi:10.1126/science.1172783

[16.] Friedman M. 2009. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction. PNAS 106: 5218-5223. doi:10.1073/pnas.0808468106
2008

[15.] Coates MI, Ruta M, Friedman M. 2008. Ever since Owen: changing perspectives on the early evolution of tetrapods. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution & Systematics 39: 571-592. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095546

[14.] Friedman M, Brazeau MD. 2008. Comment: placoderm muscles and chordate interrelationships. Biology Letters 4: 103. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0358

[13.] Friedman M. 2008. The evolutionary origin of flatfish asymmetry. Nature 454: 209-212. doi:10.1038/nature07108
2007

[12.] Friedman M. 2007. Cranial structure in the Devonian lungfish Soederberghia groenlandica and its implications for the interrelationships of ‘rhynchodipterids’. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 98: 179-198. doi:10.1017/S175569100700607X

[11.] Friedman M. 2007. The interrelationships of Devonian lungfishes (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) as inferred from neurocranial evidence and new data from the genus Soederberghia Lehman, 1959. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151: 115-171. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00320.x

[10.] Friedman M. 2007. Styloichthys as the oldest coelacanth: implications for early osteichthyan interrelationships. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 5: 289-343. doi:10.1017/S1477201907002052

[9.] Friedman M, Coates MI, Anderson PSL. 2007. First discovery of a primitive coelacanth fin fills a major gap in the evolution of fins and limbs. Evolution & Development 9: 329-337. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00169.x

[8.] Blom H, Clack JA, Ahlberg PE, Friedman M. 2007. Devonian vertebrates from East Greenland: a review of faunal composition and distribution. Geodiversitas 29: 119-141.

[7.] Hurley IA, Lockridge Muller R, Dunn KA, Schmidt EJ, Friedman M, Ho RK, Prince VE, Yang Z, Thomas MG, Coates MI. 2007. A new time-scale for ray-finned fish evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 489-498.
2006

[6.] Friedman M, Blom H. 2006. A new actinopterygian from the Famennian of East Greenland and the relationships of Devonian ray-finned fishes. Journal of Paleontology 80: 1186-1204.

[5.] Friedman M, Daeschler EB. 2006. Late Devonian (Famennian) lungfishes from the Catskill Formation of Pennsylvania, USA. Palaeontology 49: 1167-1183.

[4.] Friedman M, Coates MI. 2006. A newly recognized coelacanth highlights the early morphological diversification of the clade. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273: 245-250.
2005

[3.] Friedman M, Johnson GD. 2005. A new species of Mene (Perciformes: Menidae) from the Paleocene of South America, with notes on paleoenvironment and a brief review of menid fishes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25: 770-783.

[2.] Ahlberg PE, Friedman M, Blom H. 2005. New light on the earliest known tetrapod jaw. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25: 720-724.
2003

[1.] Friedman M, Tarduno JA, Brinkman DB. 2003. Fossil fishes from the high Canadian Arctic: further paleobiological evidence for extreme climatic warmth during the Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Coniacian). Cretaceous Research 24: 615-632.
peer coverage of research

Ferry, LA. 2015. Functional morphology: ‘point and shoot’ prey capture in fishes. Current Biology 25: R982-984 (review of Bellwood et al. 2015)

M. S. Y. Lee, R. M. D. Beck. 2015. Mammalian evolution: a Jurassic spark. Current Biology 25: R759-R761 (review of Close et al. 2015)

Anonymous. 2013. Early cichlids traversed the world’s oceans. Science 341:1326. (review of Friedman et al. 2013)

Pennisi, E. 2013. Eating was tough for early tetrapods. Science 339:390. (review of SICB talk based on Anderson et al. 2013)

Alfaro M, Santini F. 2010. News & Views: A flourishing of fish forms. Nature 464: 840-841. (review of Friedman 2010)

Cavin L. 2010. Perspectives: On giant filter feeders. Science 327: 968-969. (review of Friedman et al. 2010)

Janvier P. 2008. News & Views: Squint of the fossil flatfish. Nature 454: 179-180. (review of Friedman 2008)